Welcome to Device Tech Bytes 4th Vol! In the previous Tech Byte topic, we have learned about All You Need to Know About Screen Protectors! By Me. Today we are going to learn about 5G next-generation wireless. SO far we have seen 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, now it is time for the next generation, exciting? let's get started.
Whenever you want to access the Internet, you always take a quick glance at the network bar to check whether you’re network is on 4G, 3G/H+, or E/2G. The taste of 4G and the blazing fast speeds has given us almost Wi-Fi-like experience on mobile data. This meant we could enjoy video streaming and data-heavy services. The day is not far where you can start streaming FHD and 4K content with 5G services are being introduced around the world. Let’s dive in deep to understand the technology involved within this 5th generation telecommunication network which will change the world of the future network.
5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connect new industries. 5G is the successor to 4G. Is that enough? Well, no. Certainly, the most common answer by anyone would be “The Next Generation of the Internet.” Technically it’s called 5G NR. NR stands for “New Radio” because the technology also makes use of high-frequency mmWave apart from your general 4G LTE bands.
How does it work? Will it make your internet faster? Will it make data plans cheaper? Let's find out now.
5G – 0.001ms
Since more devices are on the existing spectrum, the speed has decreased. With an aim to increase and gain more bandwidth 5G is going to work on the concept of Millimetre ways. It is a band of spectrum between 30GHz and 300GHz. There’s more catch with MM waves, they cannot travel far or penetrate through walls. Not only Obstacles like a wall but even climate change can affect the signals. Higher frequency mm Waves can be blocked even by your hands around your phone if they are weak before reaching.
The antennas for Millimetre waves would be relatively small in terms of height and there’ll be need of more antennas per square kilometer of the radius. Thus, they would be used with below technologies to reach everywhere in malls, offices, and so on. This is because theoretically, the Size of the Antenna is 1/4th of Wavelength. For Millimetre Waves, Frequency is high and Wavelength is less.
To cater to the problem of Millimetre waves used, there are two options. The first one is to create more towers that are practically impossible across the globe. The other one is to use smart cells. (Similar to Repeaters) They consume low power and act as base stations to eliminate physical obstruction of millimeter waves.
MIMO stands for “Multiple Input Multiple Output.” By using it, one signal tower capacity can be boosted to a whole new level. It (multiple inputs, multiple outputs) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver). The antennas at each end of the communications circuit are combined to minimize errors and optimize data speed. This requires more antennas and more streams per antenna
This technology has aroused interest because of its possible applications in digital television (DTV), wireless local area networks (WLANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and mobile communications. However, due to massive input/output, it is going to cause interference. This can be fixed by changing how these signals transmit.
Instead of sending signals in a wide range, the signals would be sent in a form of a beam in a particular direction for a particular user. Think of it as using a Torch and a Laser Light. This would help to send quality signals over quantity and eliminate interference discussed above.
In simple words, it means using the same route for sending and receiving data. In other words, it’s a one-way route through which data can be sent and received efficiently without any lag. Think of it as two trains running on the same track in the opposite direction without any interference.
Difference between previous generations of mobile networks
The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
First-generation - 1G
The 1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.
Second-generation - 2G
The early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).
Third generation - 3G
The early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).
Fourth-generation - 4G LTE
The 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.
1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before. 5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models, and deliver new services. With high speeds, superior reliability, and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics — and more — a reality.
Does Electromagnetic Wave (Radio Waves) cause Cancer?According to Literature Review in 2009-10, it says there isn’t enough data available to find out whether mobile phones cause cancer. Then in 2011, the WHO (World Health Organization) came up with research papers that said cellphones link in the production of Class II Cancer Compounds. However, there is no direct relation of the same other than linking in the production of the compound.
According to recent studies in 2016, there was an experiment conducted. In this experiment, rats were kept in GSM and CDMA signals which has a SAR rating of 15W/kg (10x Times the Normal) for 2 years. The results showed that the majority of the rats were safe and the rest didn’t show any effects. This was a full-body exposure for the rats, whereas Humans go through only partial body exposure with less SAR emission.
Talking about 5G which are based on Millimetre Waves, they work on 24GHz to 300 GHz, most mmWave network radios will operate at a frequency of 24GHz to 60 GHz spectrum. The reflection rate of these waves is higher. As a result, even if these waves fall on your body, they will bounce back and won’t absorb much into your body. Hence, there isn’t much issue with 5G radiations due to their high deflection rate. This is another reason why you need more towers for 5G Signals to penetrate everywhere.
Birds died in Netherland by 5G testing?
We all heard about it in the news that a lot of birds died in the Netherlands during a 5G Experiment. The truth is the birds died between 19th October 2018 to 3rd November 2018 which were namely 337 Starlings and 2 Pigeons. Whereas, the experiment in this area was conducted on 28th June 2018 under FCC Guidance just for 1 Day. Thus, we don’t see a direct relation or scientific reason about the same. Here’s more about it.
5G is going to be the home ground for connecting everything around us. According to my research, the year 2020-21 feels a sweet spot for 5G. This is estimated on the basis of availability of devices for a fair price, stable 5G connections and decent data plans. Till then, let us cherish 4G as we wait for an amazing 5G experience
Tecgag, Qualcomm, Wikipedia
I hope now we have learned something interesting here today
so let's end this here and will meet you guys in my new topic again
Previous Tech Bytes[Device Tech Bytes] [#2] All About Reverse Wireless Charging: Know More! --JBJ2
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