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[Discussion] [Device Tech Bytes #5] 5G - All about the next generation wireless

2020-05-08 22:36:49
3079 110

Greeting Everyone!

                    Welcome to Device Tech Bytes 4th Vol! In the previous Tech Byte topic, we have learned about All You Need to Know About Screen Protectors! By Me. Today we are going to learn about 5G next-generation wireless. SO far we have seen 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, now it is time for the next generation, exciting? let's get started.

          Whenever you want to access the Internet, you always take a quick glance at the network bar to check whether you’re network is on 4G, 3G/H+, or E/2G. The taste of 4G and the blazing fast speeds has given us almost Wi-Fi-like experience on mobile data. This meant we could enjoy video streaming and data-heavy services. The day is not far where you can start streaming FHD and 4K content with 5G services are being introduced around the world. Let’s dive in deep to understand the technology involved within this 5th generation telecommunication network which will change the world of the future network.
          No company or person owns the 5G, but there are several companies within the mobile ecosystem that are contributing to bringing 5G to our human technology world. Qualcomm has played a major role in inventing the many foundational technologies that drive the industry forward for 5G, the next wireless standard. They are the heart of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the industry organization that defines the global specifications for 3G UMTS (including HSPA), 4G LTE, and 5G technologies.

          5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. 5G enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices.

          5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra-low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connect new industries. 5G is the successor to 4G. Is that enough? Well, no. Certainly, the most common answer by anyone would be “The Next Generation of the Internet.” Technically it’s called 5G NR. NR stands for “New Radio” because the technology also makes use of high-frequency mmWave apart from your general 4G LTE bands.

How does it work? Will it make your internet faster? Will it make data plans cheaper? Let's find out now.

          With every New Generation, there is an expected 10 fold increase in speeds and Drop-in network latency, wider connectivity, etc. But if you compare to the transition between consecutive generations, 4G to 5G is going to be greater because 5G is Takes advantage of everything we already have in 4G as well as introduces the use of high-frequency mmWave i.e. the concept of Millimeter waves which we would discuss ahead as follows.

  • Faster network with the potential to transform the Internet of Things.
  • Foundation for Self Driving cars, VR and so on
  • Handle more traffic than ever over a particular area.
  • 100x more Network capacity than 4G Network.
  • Lower Latency (Ping)
  • Pings
            4G – 0.045ms
            5G – 0.001ms

          Well, all of you have read about these features but you wouldn’t have understood what it means if you aren’t into Tech. Don’t I am going to explain to you everything. Just stay till the end and you would understand it.
          This deployment is going to be independent and won’t depend on any of the previous infrastructures of 3G or 4G. The following technologies might be used together to deploy 5G across the globe.

Millimeter Waves:  

          Since more devices are on the existing spectrum, the speed has decreased. With an aim to increase and gain more bandwidth 5G is going to work on the concept of Millimetre ways. It is a band of spectrum between 30GHz and 300GHz. There’s more catch with MM waves, they cannot travel far or penetrate through walls. Not only Obstacles like a wall but even climate change can affect the signals. Higher frequency mm Waves can be blocked even by your hands around your phone if they are weak before reaching.

          The antennas for Millimetre waves would be relatively small in terms of height and there’ll be need of more antennas per square kilometer of the radius. Thus, they would be used with below technologies to reach everywhere in malls, offices, and so on. This is because theoretically, the Size of the Antenna is 1/4th of Wavelength. For Millimetre Waves, Frequency is high and Wavelength is less.
Smart Cells

          To cater to the problem of Millimetre waves used, there are two options. The first one is to create more towers that are practically impossible across the globe. The other one is to use smart cells. (Similar to Repeaters) They consume low power and act as base stations to eliminate physical obstruction of millimeter waves.

          MIMO stands for “Multiple Input Multiple Output.” By using it, one signal tower capacity can be boosted to a whole new level. It (multiple inputs, multiple outputs) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver). The antennas at each end of the communications circuit are combined to minimize errors and optimize data speed. This requires more antennas and more streams per antenna

          This technology has aroused interest because of its possible applications in digital television (DTV), wireless local area networks (WLANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs), and mobile communications. However, due to massive input/output, it is going to cause interference. This can be fixed by changing how these signals transmit.

Beam Forming:
          Instead of sending signals in a wide range, the signals would be sent in a form of a beam in a particular direction for a particular user. Think of it as using a Torch and a Laser Light. This would help to send quality signals over quantity and eliminate interference discussed above.

Full duplex:
          In simple words, it means using the same route for sending and receiving data. In other words, it’s a one-way route through which data can be sent and received efficiently without any lag. Think of it as two trains running on the same track in the opposite direction without any interference.

Difference between previous generations of mobile networks
The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.

First-generation - 1G
The 1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.

Second-generation - 2G
The early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).

Third generation - 3G
The early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).

Fourth-generation - 4G LTE
The 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.

          1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before. 5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models, and deliver new services. With high speeds, superior reliability, and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics — and more — a reality.

          All the current networks such as 2G, 3G, 4G, and even the upcoming 5G network are based on Non-ionizing wavelength. Non-ionizing radiations do not cause cancer, but ionizing radiations are the one which causes cancer. In India, the SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) is 1.6W/kg which is very negligible. It means that phones sold in India should have a SAR level at or below 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/kg) taken over the volume containing a mass of 1 gram of tissue that is absorbing the most signal. Meanwhile, EU countries have the SAR limit is 2 W/kg averaged over the 10 g of tissue absorbing the most signal. Anyways, this amount of energy is too less to cause any health hazards.

Does Electromagnetic Wave (Radio Waves) cause Cancer?
          According to Literature Review in 2009-10, it says there isn’t enough data available to find out whether mobile phones cause cancer. Then in 2011, the WHO (World Health Organization) came up with research papers that said cellphones link in the production of Class II Cancer Compounds. However, there is no direct relation of the same other than linking in the production of the compound.

          According to recent studies in 2016, there was an experiment conducted. In this experiment, rats were kept in GSM and CDMA signals which has a SAR rating of 15W/kg (10x Times the Normal) for 2 years. The results showed that the majority of the rats were safe and the rest didn’t show any effects. This was a full-body exposure for the rats, whereas Humans go through only partial body exposure with less SAR emission.

5G Radiations:
          Talking about 5G which are based on Millimetre Waves, they work on 24GHz to 300 GHz, most mmWave network radios will operate at a frequency of 24GHz to 60 GHz spectrum. The reflection rate of these waves is higher. As a result, even if these waves fall on your body, they will bounce back and won’t absorb much into your body. Hence, there isn’t much issue with 5G radiations due to their high deflection rate. This is another reason why you need more towers for 5G Signals to penetrate everywhere.

Birds died in Netherland by 5G testing?
          We all heard about it in the news that a lot of birds died in the Netherlands during a 5G Experiment. The truth is the birds died between 19th October 2018 to 3rd November 2018 which were namely 337 Starlings and 2 Pigeons. Whereas, the experiment in this area was conducted on 28th June 2018 under FCC Guidance just for 1 Day. Thus, we don’t see a direct relation or scientific reason about the same. Here’s more about it.

  • Will it make my Internet faster?
          Yes, it definitely will. 5G is theoretically 20 times faster than 4G with a ping of 0.001ms. The question is not about how fast but, it has way more peak capacity than older networks.

  • Will it make my data plans cheaper?
          As of now, there is no information about the price of data plans.

  • Who is working on 5G?
          It is in works by 3GPP(3rd Generation Partnership Project). They are the ones who worked 3G HSPA and 4G LTE standards. Other Manufacturers include Qualcomm, Intel, etc.

  • Will it consume more battery?
          Initially, it might be. But according to Qualcomm, it might be defaulted to 4G and jumping to 5G when there’s a need for faster speed or lower latency. This switching would definitely save a lot of battery.

  • How much would the 5G phones cost? Whether mid-range, budget-range phone get it? Currently, even a 6K phone has 4G?
          Budget and Mid-range phones would not be available immediately with 5G. However with time, as 5G widespread across the globe, we might see them by 2020-21.

5G is going to be the home ground for connecting everything around us. According to my research, the year 2020-21 feels a sweet spot for 5G. This is estimated on the basis of availability of devices for a fair price, stable 5G connections and decent data plans. Till then, let us cherish 4G as we wait for an amazing 5G experience

Tecgag, Qualcomm, Wikipedia

I hope now we have learned something interesting here today
so let's end this here and will meet you guys in my new topic again

Thanks to the admins and moderators for this great opportunity
hope I will come up with good content again in my next topic

Signing off


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2020-05-08 22:36:49
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ᎮᏒᎥᏁፈᏋ | from Redmi Note 4X


Well explained 👍
2020-05-09 00:23:40
Thanks for the great article
2020-05-10 09:20:01

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feds64 | from app


Great to see the awesome work...
2020-05-10 11:40:25

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Tin Naing Zaw | from app


Thanks for your sharing.
2020-05-10 13:17:47
thanks for the info
2020-05-11 16:58:07


Gangbuzzcrew | from MI 5X


thanks for sharing
2020-05-13 11:34:49

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SriramSrikrishna | from Redmi Note 4


Thanks for sharing
2020-05-13 11:43:54

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1704560970 | from Redmi Note 8 Pro


nice ty
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Thanks for sharing
2020-05-13 12:07:01

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2020-05-13 12:09:36
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