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The ultimate test of fidelity for a speaker is how similar the waveform in the air (the pressure wave) is to the electronic signal (the sound recording) that was sent into the amplifier. If every frequency is accurately reproduced to the listener without adding or removing any information it’s probably a superb speaker. There are several factors that determine how accurate the listening experience will be including the frequency response, the amount of distortion, and the directionality (dispersion) of the speaker.
Welcome to Device Tech Bytes 26th Vol! In the previous Tech Byte topic, we have learned All About UFS Storage! By Me. In today's topic let's discuss Speakers & How It Works!. The human ear is not a perfect audio receiver, but it is the best we have to work with. Infants can bear sounds approaching 20 kHz. As we age, our hearing, like other body parts, loses some of its ability to function. A 20-year-old can be expected to hear sounds near 15 kHz, but it's all downhill from there. There are a few important considerations when deciding on a speaker system that will greatly affect your ability to hear all of the sounds your new stereo can produce. Fortunately, an automobile usually makes an excellent acoustic chamber in which to reproduce sounds. So why waiting let's see what our ears can hear.
A Brief History of the Cone Speaker
When recorded audio first found its way into American homes via Thomas Edison's phonograph, the playback devices were mechanically powered. Large, tapered horns were used to project sound (See photo above). In 1898 Oliver Lodge invented "the bellowing telephone" loudspeaker which was very similar to the modern, common cone speaker. Later, in the 1920s, Bell Laboratories began to develop an audio system to playback the newly invented, electrically cut phonograph records. Bell Laboratories developed many speaker prototypes including designs based on Lodge's cone, as well as electrostatic type loudspeakers. Due to the large size of the electrostatic design, Bell Laboratories ultimately went with a cone design. The moving-coil (dynamic) cone speakers developed by Bell Laboratories laid the foundation for the common cone speakers we use today.
In the 1930s, theaters began implementing two-way sound systems that featured a large subwoofer, a crossover network, and a horn that covered high frequencies. It would be another 30 years before multispeaker systems evolved into the home audio systems which are so commonplace today.
Many of us own or have owned 2.1 systems. These are those common home theater, a stereo system, and computer speaker set-ups that have two satellite speaker boxes and a separate subwoofer enclosure. In many cases, an amplifier is included. These common 2.1 systems are rooted in design concepts pioneered by Paul Weathers. His Compass Triphonic System, introduced in 1968, featured a pair of satellite speakers and a subwoofer similar to a modern 2.1 system.
What are the parts of a speaker?
The parts of a speaker are
How does sound work in relation to speakers:-
Sound moves in pressure waves. When air particles are compressed and rarified fast enough, we hear it as sound. The faster the air pressure changes, the higher the “frequency” of the sound we hear. When a speaker moves back and forth it pushes on air particles which changes the air pressure and creates sound waves.
How do speakers work
Speakers work by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy (motion). The mechanical energy compresses air and converts the motion into sound energy or sound pressure level (SPL). When an electric current is sent through a coil of wire, it induces a magnetic field. In speakers, a current is sent through the voice coil which produces an electric field that interacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet attached to the speaker. Like charges repel each other and different charges attract. As an audio signal is sent through the voice coil and the musical waveform moves up and down, the voice coil is attracted and repelled by the permanent magnet. This makes the cone that the voice coil is attached to move back and forth. The back and forth motion creates pressure waves in the air that we perceive as sound.
What separates the best speaker from an ok speaker
What is frequency response and why is it so important?
The goal of a flat frequency response is to ensure that the people listening to your music experience it the way you intended it. If your track is well mastered and sounds good on speakers with a flat response, you can be sure that it will sound its best on any playback system.
How can speakers improve? Where do most speakers fall short?
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Many speakers we use have limited frequency responses. For example: Try to hear the bass kick on your laptop speakers! No thump right? Most speakers also have lower output power. Ever try using your phone to play music at a party? Not a very jumping party I’m sure. A lot of speakers also produce distortions, meaning they add frequencies to the music that were not there in the original recording. While there are times when distortion can sound good (think tubes and Eddie Van Halen) speaker distortion often sounds bad unless it was put there by choice. And after you spend time recording and mixing a song, you don’t want people to hear things in your music that were not there, to begin with.
Larger speakers are, on average, much better in terms of their frequency response and distortion but a big improvement would be to be able to produce better, more accurate sound from smaller speakers.
The future of speakers
Graphene is a cool new material that was first discovered in 2004. It significantly improves loudspeaker performance. Graphene is the strongest and lightest material in existence. Because it’s light, it can move very quickly, making it great for high frequencies. Here at ORA, we’ve developed our own Graphene Oxide material called GrapheneQ that’s built specifically for audio applications.
Its strength means it doesn’t deform or distort as it moves back and forth, providing a higher-fidelity sound from speakers that can be smaller and more efficient. Traditional speakers are actually one of the least efficient technologies that we still use today. Less than 1% of the power that goes into a speaker gets converted into sound. Most of the energy gets converted into heat. Traditional speakers are actually less efficient than incandescent lightbulbs, which are pretty much outlawed at this point! Because Graphene is so lightweight (it’s merely one-atom-thick!) it takes a lot less energy to move back and forth. So if you took any wireless headphones or speakers on the market today and replaced their membrane with our GrapheneQ material, you would immediately see a 70% battery life boost.
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