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[Other] [How It Works #20] What is 5G? And How It Works!

2019-10-21 03:42:37
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5g Fifth generation mobile communications
Communication networks of the “fifth generation”, the so-called 5G, coupled with Big Data Analysis and the Internet of Things (IoT), are designed to become one of the foundations of the digital economy, the main driving force of which should be artificial intelligence (AI).
For more than 40 years, four generations of mobile networks have changed. If first-generation 1G cellular networks have long disappeared, then 2G, 3G and 4G networks are still in operation. Moreover, a certain amount of legacy 3G and 4G network infrastructure will organically be part of the fifth generation 5G mobile networks.

The need to move to 5G
The cost of passing an ever-increasing traffic through the networks of telecom operators as of 2019 is not covered by revenues from traditional services. Search for new services, the so-called The killer application of traditional telecom platforms usually does not produce the expected results.

Meanwhile, the main growth in traffic and incomes does not occur in the device sector of people, but in the device sector of the Internet of things, which is one of the basic goals of the 5G functional. Therefore, 5G networks can be considered one of the necessary components of digital transformation and the digital economy.
We see that the USA and China are rapidly leading in 5G. Switzerland is also striving forward, Australia, Japan, Korea are already doing early 5G projects. I think the governments of these countries understand that 5G is indeed an important national infrastructure.

said Ericsson CEO Borje Ekholm.
The standardization of 5G technologies and solutions should be completed by 2021, so the term 5G so far only refers to fragmented solutions that will be included in the future of the full-blown IMT2020 solution. Such solutions are already deployed in different countries, however, they are still local and test in nature, and do not provide all the planned functionality of IMT2020 standard networks.

5G Major Standardization Organizations
As of 2019:

3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) is an alliance of seven organizations developing various telecommunication standards, which, in turn, include other partners. The goal of 3GPP is to formulate specifications, evaluate proposals, and finalize standards. In mid-2017, a version of the general Release 15 standard was adopted, and Release 16 is being developed, which will be adopted in 2019. In addition to developing a common architecture, 3GPP is also developing 5G New Radio (NR) radio technology standards for the new frequency bands allocated under 5G.

ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, which is a member of 3GPP, and is most active in the development of 5G standards.

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) is developing an IP protocol upgrade solution to support the virtualization of network functions NFV (Network Fucntion Vitrualization). For example, the IETF has developed Service Function Chaining (SFC) technology that combines virtualized 5G architecture components such as base stations, service gateways, and data packets in a single route. This allows the dynamic creation and coupling of virtual network functions VNF (Virtual Network Functions). The IETF works closely with 3GPP.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a UN agency based in Geneva that standardizes a wide range of telecommunication technologies. In particular, it coordinates the sharing of the radio frequency spectrum, including for 5G networks. In addition to these three main coordinating organizations, there are a number of others in which systematic practical work is underway to develop IMT2020 (5G) standards.

5GPPP (5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership) is considered one of the leading 5G standardization partnerships. The organization sets ambitious goals for developing requirements for the 5G network, for example, capturing the network capacity by 1000 times, reducing the power consumption of user devices by 90%, significantly reducing the time it takes to create new services and services, complete and safe network coverage and with a negligible data transfer delay, and so forth

NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance. The Next Generation Mobile Networking Alliance is standardizing a full range of 5G solutions. The alliance includes the leadership of leading US operators: AT&T, U.S. Cellular and Verizon.

In addition to these, there are industry and regional organizations such as 5G Americas, Small Cell Forum, which also make a great contribution to the development and standardization of 5G solutions.

5G standardization roadmap in 3GPP. Source: The ABC’s of 5G New Radio Standards. 5992-3406EN © Keysight Technologies, November 8, 2018

Planned 5G standardization schedule in ITU.

Large telecom operators such as AT&T, Verizon and others also make a big contribution to the development of standards. They coordinate their work with ETSI and ITU, but sometimes they are ahead of these organizations. Therefore, the decisions of these operators often form the basis of the ETSI and ITU standards.
The purpose of creating and assigning 5G networks.
Previous generation mobile communication networks had the following purposes and functionality:
  • 1G: Analog Network Voice Services
  • 2G: Voice over digital network services, low speed data services (GPRS, EDGE)
  • 3G: High-speed data services (HSPA), with the ability to transmit voice over IP, mobile Internet access MBB (Mobile Broadband).
  • 4G: LTE, LTE-A Mobile Broadband MBB, Voice over Voice (VoLTE)
  • 5G: networks greatly expand the limited functionality of previous generation mobile networks.

The main functional features of 5G networks are as follows:
  • EMBB Advanced Mobile Broadband (enhanced MBB)
  • ULLRC (Ultra Low Latency Reliable Communication)
  • Massive inter-machine communications Massive IoT / IIoT, mTC (massive Machine Type Communication)

Gigabytes per second. 5G networks can significantly increase the speed of data transmission through various radio access technologies (RAT), and by using the new 5G NR radio frequency spectra (New Radio). The user gets almost unlimited bandwidth, both for home use of various services, and for the purposes of enterprises (Immersive Telepresence, Industrial IoT, etc.)

Smart House. A wide range of different Internet of Things (IoT) services will be available for the Smart Home and Smart Building solutions: video surveillance, control and automation of household appliances, security systems management, content storage, climate control, etc.

Smart city. The Smart City solution is a horizontal and vertical scaling of the functionality and range of Smart Home services. Main services of Smart City: Safe City, e-Government e-Government, e-Health e-Health, e-Education e-Education, e-Banking e-banking, Smart Meters utilities electronic collection, Smart Grid smart grids, etc. .

New 4K / 8K video services: Volumetric video, ultra-high definition (UHD) screen, presence effect option.

Work in the cloud. The service makes it possible not only to store data in a cloud storage and retrieve it from there, but also to use application programs that work directly from the cloud. Moreover, with the possibility of their use on any device and from any location. In addition, it is possible to use APIs through which cloud service providers can provide their services to subscribers of a 5G network operator.

Augmented and virtual reality (AR / VR). The virtual reality service VR (Virtual Reality) immerses a person in another world, influencing his senses, especially his vision (VR glasses). Augmented Reality AR (Augmented Reality) service combines a real environment for a user with virtual objects. These services are suitable not only for entertainment, games, virtual communication in the "telepresence" mode, but can also significantly improve the learning process, when students using VR glasses can, for example, visually see the internal structure of a person at a lecture on anatomy, a master in the workshop can study the assembly order of a complex unit, etc.

Industrial Automation. The 5G network, coupled with the technology of the Internet of things IoT, with the help of industrial sensors IIoT (Industrial Internet of things), as well as with the help of artificial intelligence, AI (AI, Artificial Intelligence) can significantly increase the degree of automation of production. At the same time, it becomes possible in real time to analyze large volumes of heterogeneous data (Big Data) based on the findings (insights) and using machine and deep learning (Machine learning, Deep learning).

Business Critical Applications These applications may include, for example, electronic medicine (e-Health), emergency communications (Mission Critical Communication), tactile Internet (Tactile Internet) and others.

Unmanned vehicles (Driverless Vehicles). Unmanned transport can act as part of the Smart City service, however, it can be provided on its own platform. It includes not only unmanned vehicles (driverless cars), but also unmanned tractors for “smart agriculture” (Smart Agriculture), unmanned trains for the metro and suburban railways, drones and other types of public and special transport. In addition, on the 5G platform, the implementation of ADAS (Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems) driver assistance systems is possible. It should be emphasized that the figure above shows only some of the services and solutions of the 5G platform. Unlike the networks of previous generations, the range of services of which was strictly limited and somewhat expanded in 4G, the services of the 5G platform are synergistic and scalable, and are not limited to once defined functionality. In fact, 5G plays the role of a platform for the development of new services and DevOps applications, when new functions are created by developers (Development) in close coordination with the teams who are responsible for their implementation and operation (Operation).

Due to the fifth generation networks, it will also be possible to improve the quality of the use of existing services where large volumes of traffic are involved.

Theodore Sizer, vice president of wireless technology at Bell Labs, noted that there will be a wide variety of devices running on 5G networks. Smartphones and tablets will not go anywhere, but besides them, a whole “zoo” of various devices will appear on the network, including CCTV cameras, weather sensors, sensors of “smart” electric networks, “smart” houses and cars.

Ericsson said that 5G will usher in the long-term development of the Networked Society:
We are on the verge of an incredible revolution that will forever change our world. In this new world, every person, every device, no matter where they are, will exchange information in real time. Over the next 10 years, our society will undergo more changes than in the last 100 years. And this is just the beginning.
The number of devices interacting with the Internet and among themselves is constantly increasing. More sophisticated networks are needed that can provide this interaction as efficiently as possible. Next-generation networks are opening up new opportunities in many areas - from improving the efficiency of production processes, improving safety on the roads and in the city as a whole, to improving utilities and a cleaner environment.
said John Healy, Intel's Communication & Storage Infrastructure Group.

South Korean operator SK Telecom, one of the first companies to demonstrate 5G technology in action, at the initial stage of deployment of new generation networks focuses on ordinary users as the main consumers of services, company representatives told TAdviser in February 2016. Thanks to 5G, users can watch 3D-TV without glasses, download in seconds or watch UltraHD video online at high speed.

It will also be possible to use virtual and augmented reality applications at a new level, according to SK Telecom. For example, include elements of augmented reality in the educational process, creating virtual museums and models of the universe in the classrooms.

In the projects of “smart cities” 5G will allow real-time transmission of information from a much larger number of sensors at various objects. Qualcomm's senior director of product management for mobile technology, Sanjeev Athalye, notes that it will be possible to deploy a thousand sensors instead of a hundred, for servicing which there will be a sufficiently smaller number of base stations than with existing networks. These can be, for example, sensors for monitoring the state of housing and communal services objects, sensors for “smart lighting” or sound sensors installed for safety and order in the city. In the latter case, the sensors can detect suspicious or too loud sounds, and this information will be automatically transmitted to law enforcement.

New services using 5G can also be implemented in medicine. For example, to organize remote monitoring of patients. The doctor will be able to quickly receive information from special sensors and monitor the condition of patients around the clock.

Thanks to its very low latency, 5G will also open up more possibilities for remote operations using the robot. Such a service is especially relevant for small settlements where there are no surgeons in the field: controlling the manipulations of the robot, the operation can be performed by a specialist located in a completely different place. Due to 5G, such a service can be deployed in wireless networks.

The low data latency that next-generation networks can provide is also important for the deployment of smart power networks. Using sensors will allow you to instantly detect damage on the power line and block the spread of the consequences of damage further along the line. Thus, damage will affect fewer consumers of electricity.

In large manufacturing companies, in retail, logistics, 5G will make it possible to use more industrial robots that perform various functions instead of people and drones. The latter are already used in some industries, but are most often managed using Wi-Fi networks. 5G will allow you to cover a greater distance than Wi-Fi networks, and due to the low latency - increase the stability of such systems. For example, Amazon has a project to deploy a system for delivering goods using drones.

Using robots to carry boxes in the wine industry. Demo at the Ericsson booth at the 2016 World Mobile Congress

An example of services for which 5G will have an advantage is urban video surveillance systems. 5G will help simplify their deployment and use. Now traffic from thousands of cameras in cities is mainly transmitted via fixed networks. To deploy such an infrastructure is not an easy task, since it is necessary to lay many wires. With 5G it will be possible to receive terabytes of high-resolution video without the use of wires.

Another example is a vehicle monitoring service in companies. Qualcomm’s Sanjeev Atali believes that with the advent of a new generation of networks, operators who provide such a service will be able to reduce its cost. This will be possible due to the fact that the cost of one 5G base station will be lower than the cost of stations for existing networks, as well as due to the fact that one base station can simultaneously serve more devices, respectively, fewer base stations will be required for the service.
5G practical benefits.

The 5G network platform provides significant advantages for operators, which are expressed primarily in expanding the functionality and characteristics of the network (performance) and increasing user satisfaction (User Experience). The figure below shows the main parameters of the IMT2020 (5G) network, compared with the IMT-Advanced (4G) indicators that allow this to be achieved.

The practical benefits of 5G. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G / IMT2020, 2016, ITU

Peak speed: 5G network provides 20 times faster speed compared to 4G, that is, about 20 Gb / s.

The speed per user (average) can reach 100 Mbit / s or more.

The spectrum utilization efficiency, the amount of information that can be transmitted per unit of the frequency range, in a 5G network will be at least 3 times higher than in 4G.

User mobility, the speed with which a user with a 5G terminal can move across the network coverage area without losing handover between base stations, in a 5G network reaches 500 km / h, which makes it possible to use 5G services in high-speed trains.

5G network latency is reduced to 1 ms or less, while a 4G network can achieve a minimum of 10 millisecond delay. This allows you to use 5G technology for critical communications and video surveillance, tactile Internet services, AR / VR, etc.

The density of terminals in the 5G network increases by an order of magnitude and can reach several million devices per 1 sq. km, that is, on one square meter of the surface there can be several tens or even hundreds of miniature devices (for example, IoT sensors).

The energy efficiency of a 5G network is an order of magnitude better than that of a previous generation network.

The traffic capacity per unit area, that is, the data transfer rate per square meter of the network coverage area, in 5G is two orders of magnitude higher than in a 4G network.


As of 2019, 5G is supposed to be used in various radio frequency spectra. However, in the range up to 6 GHz, including the 5 GHz band allocated for Wi-Fi, there are still serious problems with the availability of free frequencies. The allocation of frequencies for 5G in the spectrum up to 6 GHz was already agreed at the WRC-15 World Radiocommunication Conference in 2015. The higher frequency ranges will be allocated to WRC-19 in 2019 [1].

The use of low-frequency sections of the spectrum for 5G networks allows achieving optimal network coverage without massive investments in the development of network infrastructure.

Low frequencies provide good penetration of radio waves into rooms, which is very important for IoT. Of particular importance is the 700 MHz band, designed for M2M communication systems, the “smart city” and “smart homes”. For particularly reliable connection of such objects as, for example, self-driving cars, robots, industrial automation, the ranges 3.4-3.8 GHz can be used. It is assumed that in the 5G era, operators will be allocated continuous frequency bands of 300-400 MHz.

The high-frequency spectrum is necessary for 5G networks to achieve data transfer rates of up to 20 Gb / s, in particular, to provide 3D-video services in the UHD, AR / VR format, cloud services for work and games, holographic communications, tactile Internet, etc. In particular , for this, the possibility of using the bands of 24.25-27.5 GHz and 37-43.5 GHz is considered.

The figure below shows the planned distribution of the 5G low-frequency spectrum in various countries and regions of the world according to WRC-15.

5G low frequency distribution in different countries and regions of the world.

5G New Radio Technology (5G NR)

In order to meet the ever-increasing demands on mobile communications, technologies were developed for 5G under the common name of “New 5G Radio”, 5G New Radio (5G NR). Compared to the radio interface in 4G networks, 5G NR has several important advantages.

The development of 5G NR was carried out almost from scratch, taking into account the requirements for 5G networks and using the best technologies that will be available at the time of full deployment of 5G networks. Thus, 5G NR uses the latest modulation, waveforms and Radio Access Technology (RAT) technology, which, among other things, will provide high data transfer speeds and extend the battery life of 5G user devices.
Prerequisites for 5G NR technology appeared in the 3GPP Release 15 standard, approved in December 2017, and it is expected that the final version will be approved in December 2019.

The main distinguishing features of 5G NR radio technology are as follows:
Adding new ranges of the radio spectrum, according to the requirements for signal transmission speed, number of devices, traffic growth of numerous 5G applications. The new 5G NR bands range from 2.5 to 40 GHz. Discussions are underway on spectrum utilization up to 100 GHz.

Optimized OFDM technology (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing). This technology has already been successfully applied in 4G / LTE-A, as well as in the latest versions of Wi-Fi.

Beamforming. This is a technology that only in recent years has moved from concept to implementation, and which is able to realize many of the benefits of 5G. Beamforming makes it possible to direct a beam of radio waves from the base station to certain devices, both moving and stationary, without affecting other beams directed to the same devices.

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). MIMO - The spatial coding method of the signal, which allows to increase the bandwidth of the channel that was already used in Wi-Fi and 4G, was significantly improved in 5G, in particular, in the multi-user mode MU-MIMO (Multi-User-MIMO) in 5G base stations gNnodeB (gNB), the antennas of which consist of a matrix of radiating elements. This makes it possible to enhance the signal level for a specific user, while minimizing the effect of this signal on other users.

Spectrum sharing technologies. Many radio frequency spectra, appropriately distributed, are often not used efficiently. To solve this problem, Spectrum sharing technologies have been developed.

Unified design across frequencies. Since many new frequency ranges have been added to 5G NR, it is important to provide an interaction interface when switching a channel from one frequency to another when handover between base stations.

Small cells. Compaction of network coverage leads to the fact that the number of base stations should increase. Therefore, the Small Cells solution was proposed - a solution of inexpensive, easy to install and maintain low power base stations. They can be hung on the masts of street lighting, on the walls of houses and other objects. The 5G network is able to effectively coordinate their work, redistributing the load between the antennas.

5G does not necessarily change the risk factors that we have. But it will exponentially increase threat vectors and opportunities that attackers can take advantage of. 5G will allow companies to connect more and more devices with a higher information exchange rate, so more data will be consumed in a shorter time, thereby increasing the network capabilities and the flow of incoming and outgoing data center data. So if you have more devices connected and more data streams, you have more potential vulnerabilities due to the increase in the number of additional attack vectors. It is becoming more important than ever to have the proper monitoring tools, the ability to identify an attack if a criminal has penetrated the network, and the potential for an effective response and the elimination of any potential problem. In the end, you are still looking for anomalies, which simply will become more. So the ability to immediately identify a threat and respond to it will be crucial to minimize the risk.
Tom Lelli, Vice President, Sales, DataSpan
Thanks to Administrator and SMod and Mod!

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2019-10-21 03:42:37
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BeingBishal | from MI 9 SE


Informative Thread!
2019-10-21 04:04:08

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myrichgoh | from MI 8


Awesome information and excellent thread. Thanks for sharing...
2019-10-21 07:26:36

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Ian Adoe | from Redmi Note 5A Prime


very well explained, thanks
2019-10-21 10:11:51

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iMKajal | from MI 8


Thanks for information!
2019-10-21 11:40:09

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1719493539 | from Redmi K20 Pro


Ian Adoe
very well explained, thanks

2019-10-21 12:28:41

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bob72gar | from Redmi 5 Plus


It's a great features! I think it's still need improvement for safety due to hardware radiation.
2019-10-21 14:34:22

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thanks for sharing
2019-10-21 15:50:01
nice article   
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Thanks For Sharing
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2019-10-22 23:25:48
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