Today I am going to share more information about our Culture, Environment & Climate. I hope all of you enjoyed our first thread from #KnowFromMi Session #01. So, now it's time for #KnowFromMi Session #02.
IntroductionThe third smallest state of the country, Tripura is tucked away verdantly in a corner of Northeast India and boundaries Bangladesh extensively towards the west. In the longness of time, where land and people intertwine, Tripura’s history goes way before Christ was born, finding mention in the epic Mahabharata, in the ancient religious texts of Puranas and in the Edicts of Ashoka. For most parts of it, the land was ruled by the Twipra Kingdom of the Tripuri peoples whose history dates back before 65 AD when they migrated from western China, as noted in the 15th century text Rajmala, a chronicle of the lives of 179 kings of the mighty kingdom. Reverend James Long in his 19th century paper in volume 19 of the journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal states on the might of this kingdom “The people of Tripura like the Sikhs were a military race, and their soldiers often played the same part as the Pretorian guards did in Rome.” Under the British Empire, the region was a princely state known as Tippera until the kingdom joined the newly formed India in 1949 and came to be known by its present name. Through the recent decades of cross-cultural exchange brought by democracy, today the Bengali Hindus from mainland India form the majority population, while about thirty percent of the state consists of numerous indigenous communities including the Kokborok speaking Tripuri people.
With only a single highway connecting the state to rest of the country, Tripura remains very much disconnected and less is known about its attractions and secrets. A wild land of five mountain ranges with intervening valleys, the state has tropical savanna climate and receives seasonal heavy rains from the monsoons. Largely forested, Tripura is known for its largest primate diversity in the country. The geographic isolation however has halted economic progress and the people of the state are mainly into agriculture, cottage industries and civil services.
The various cultures of the state coexist in harmony and respect. Mainstream Indian cultural elements, especially form Bengali culture, has found togetherness with the traditional practices of the indigenous groups, as can be seen in the dances, weddings, music, cloths and festivities that are unique only to Tripura.
Small is beautiful can be an appropriate description of this tiny state that beckons travelers with scenery, ancient places, knowledge houses, monuments, museums, rolling hills, splendid gardens, temples and the wilderness.
Culture Of TripuraCulture of Tripura is similar to those of Native indigenous tribal peoples of Northeast India. However, like Assam, Manipur, Burma and Southeast Asia culture of Tripura is characterized in small portion living in plain areas by mainstream Indian cultural influence spearheaded by Bengali culture coexisting with tribal traditional practices specially living in those plain areas, not much extending to Hill people of Tripura notably the Tripuri culture. Tripura is a state in North East India. In the 2001 census of India, Bengalis (intruder- taking over tribals people job name represented almost 70% of Tripura's population and the tribal population comprised 30%( because of intruder Bengalis people tribal people population down and take over Tripura state which belong to tribal people) of Tripura's population. The tribal population comprises several different tribes and ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures. The largest tribal group was the Kokborok-speaking tribe of the Tripuri who had a population of 543,848 in 2001 census, representing 16.99% of the state population and 54.7% of the scheduled tribe population. The other major tribes in order of decreasing population were Reang (16.6% of the tribal population), Jamatia (7.5%), Chakma (6.5%), Halam (4.8%), Mog (3.1%), Munda, Kuki tribes and Garo Hajong. Bengali is the most spoken language, due to the intruderpredominance of Bengali people in the state. Kokborok is a prominent language among the tribes. Several other languages belonging to Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan families are spoken by the different tribes.Future tribals people will get their dominance back.
Tripura has several diverse ethno-linguistic groups, which has given rise to a composite culture. The dominant cultures are Bengali [intruder], Manipuri, Tripuris, Jamatia, Reang, Naitong, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Hajong, Kuki, Mizo, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal, and Uchoi.
Bengali people represent the largest non-tribal community of the state. Bengali culture, as a result, is the main non-tribal culture in the state. Indeed, many tribal families, especially those who are from the elite class and reside in urban centres, have embraced Bengali culture more than their tribal cultural roots. The Tripuri kings were great patron of Bengali culture, especially literature, and Bengali language was the language of the court. The Nobel laureate Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore had notable friendship with the kings. Elements of Bengali culture, such as Bengali literature, Bengali music, and Bengali cuisine predominate particularly in the urban areas of the state.
Tripura is noted for bamboo and cane handicrafts. Bamboo played important part in the jhumia (shifting cultivation) of the tribes. It was used to make watch stations on stilts, and was devised to carry food and water. Besides these usages, bamboo, woods and cane were used to create an array of furniture, utensils, hand-held fans, replicas, mats, baskets, idols and interior decoration materials.
Songs and dances:
Music and dances are integral part of the tribal people of Tripura. Some of their indigenous musical instruments are the sarinda, chongpreng, and sumui (a kind of flute). Songs are sung during religious occasions, weddings, and other festivals. Each tribal community has their own repertoire of songs and dances. The Tripuri and Jamatia tribe perform goria dance during the Goria puja. Jhum dance (also called tangbiti dance) in the harvest season, lebang dance, mamita dance, and mosak sulmani dance are other Tripuri dances. Reang community, the second largest tribe of the state, are noted for their hojagiri dance performed by young girls balancing on earthen pitchers. The Bizhu dance is performed by the Chakmas during the Bizhu festival (the last day of the month of Chaitra). Other tribal dances are wangala dance of the Garo people, hai-hak dance of the Halam branch of Kuki people, sangrai dance and owa dance of the Mog tribe, and others. Besides tribal music, Indian classical music is also practiced among the residents. Sachin Dev Burman of the royal family was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music, creating many popular tunes in the bollywood films.
Sculpture and architecture:
Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura are historic sites where large collections of stone carvings and rock sculptures are noted. These sculptures are evidence of the presence of Buddhism and Brahmanical orders for centuries. These sculptures represent a rare artistic fusion of traditional religions and tribal influence.
Football and cricket are the most popular sports in the state. The state capital Agartala has its own club football championships every year where many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format. Tripura participates as an eastern state team in the Ranji Trophy, the Indian domestic cricket competition. The state also is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North-Eastern Games. Tripura produced a few nationally successful players in gymnastics and swimming, but overall contribution in athletics, cricket, football and indoor games remained poor.
Environment Of Tripura
Five anticlinal hill ranges, their valleys and the plainsmake up the gorgeous landscape of Tripura. More than half of this land remainscovered by evergreen and moist deciduous forests peculiarly interspersed withbamboo and cane growths. A small portion of grasslands and swamps can be foundin the plains where herbaceous plants and scrubs flourish.
The biodiversity is perhaps rich enough for a tiny state,but further improved by the conservation endeavors in protected areas coveringfour wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks. More than 90 mammals can befound in the state including species such as elephant, bear, binturong.porcupine, barking deer, leopard, clouded leopard and other species of smallcats and primates. Tripura has the highest primate diversity in the countryhosting seven out of the fifteen primates found in India. More than 400 plantspecies are found in the state. The avifauna consists of more than 300 birdspecies. Gumti Lake is an Important Bird Area where thousands of migratorywaterfowl reside during the winters.
Climate Of Tripura
Tripura has an overall tropical savanna climate though smallvariation can occur in the hills. The state falls in the direct path of thesouthwest monsoons which has shaped the climate. There are four seasons; winterlasts from December to February, summer or pre-monsoon from March to April,monsoon from May to September, and post-monsoon from October to November.Through April to October, the state remains prone to heavy rainfall, flooding,wind and cyclone brought from the monsoon. The best time to visit the state isfrom November to March when rain is less and days are sunny to explore theoutdoors. For the rest of the year, days are generally hot and humid, or rainy.
That's all for today! See you again with another interesting topic...
Source: thegreenerpastures.com & wikipedia.org
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